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Each instrument adds a certain flavor. The carrots are very subtle. They add a bit of sweetness to the mix, but not sweet so as to hinder the other instruments from playing.
I tried to capture the era with music. To do so,I typically used real songs and then transcribed them with my imagination to create my own music and lyrics.
You can get a taste of the jambalaya, hear the songs that served as my inspiration, and you can read some of my imagined lyrics on the web page from this site at Word Sung.
Give the carrots a hand: If you cut the carrots up to different sizes, they will impart varying degrees of flavors. You don't want a uniform carrot slice.
It will lead to each bite tasting the same. I am particularly in debt to the Jubilee Singers for two songs. I have also used traditional gospel songs as my inspiration.
Jesus Met the Woman at the Well is based from the traditional song by that same name, and is taken from John 4: Like the mythic Odysseus, the Tomato has traveled the world.
Entire national and ethnic cuisines have brought the tale of the tomato into their national consciousnesses. Which is to say, the tale of Odysseus finds its way into many diverse jambalayas.
The tale of Woody is based on the myth of Theseus, the Greek hero who defeats the Minotaur and travels to Athens to discover his real fathers.
Traditionally, a group of actors assemble as the Greek classic chorus to address the audience in a sort of monologue. Although he is only one character and he does not speak in a monologue to the reader, he nevertheless tries to make Woody answer questions which are in the minds of the readers.
He is not always successful. If you read carefully, you will certainly find others. The use of Greek mythic structures as a vehicle for modern story telling was pioneered by James Joyce in Ulysses The entire novel occurs on June 16, in Dublin while Twisted Bayou ends on the same date.
Both novels utilize the stream of consciousness technique. Molly Bloom is said to symbolize, among other things, the land of Ireland Tymoczko The tomato never travels without its sword.
It's not afraid to shed its red essence, its veritable blood as all true heroes do in mythic tales. Woody and Deputy Hargrave trade insults in an Afro-American game called the dozens using sayings taken mostly from Hearn , except one doctor from Daigle The trickster tales are found all over the world.
The trickster in Native American stories is Coyote. Like Woody, Coyote plays tricks upon the unsuspecting; sometimes he is a buffon; occasionally he is evil; he is humorous when he wants to be; he is always clever.
He is also greedy, reckless, impulsive and jealous. He is a culture hero, but at the same he is an anti-hero who seeks his own individual satisfaction rather than the public good.
We meet the three angels in various guises: Louis Cathedral in New Orleans. There are other religious structures and characters used in the tale as exampled by the three temptations of Christ in the desert Matthew 4: Marcello plays the role of the Devil in tempting Woody with three options.
Temptation of Christ, At the end of her search, she finds her lover who dies in her arms. And so Woody seeks his lover at the Evangeline Hotel with the aid of his angel, Gabriel the night manager, on the first night of the story.
There, he confronts his death. Indeed, like the Acadian Gabriel, Woody searches for his lover during the entire tale. As told in the lyrics of the imaginary song, Ballad of Evangeline, Arianne seeks fame, but never finds it.
To get a handle on a culture, you have to know the original words used in its jambalaya. Without the handle of translation, you are adrift in trying to get a hold of the true meaning of a character and her relationship with the other characters.
On the whole, I want to provide a balanced translation between a strictly faithful translation and a fluent one of Cajun French. By a faithful translation, I seek to convey the meaning of the spoken word without misrepresenting the original text.
As such, the original word order is translated: Because I neither add nor subtract individuals words, the translation may seem odd to the ears of an English speaker.
However, I convey rather than mask the differences in the two languages. I might translate these phrases more simply as you and we. However, nothing so conveys to a speaker of any variety of French that someone is Cajun French as when she says vous autres and n ous autres.
Nevertheless, Cajun French is a linguistic creole with simplified verb conjugations. I do not translate verbs directly from Cajun French, but rather have sought to provide a fluent translation so that to an English speaker the text conforms to the rules of English rather than Cajun French verb conjugations.
Likewise, Cajun French, like most Romance languages, typically differentiates nouns by gender, but I do translate the gender of nouns as he or she, but rather as it.
I use Cajun French in all of the essential parts of the novel because understanding Cajun French language is essential in understanding Cajun culture.
For spelling and orthography, I generally follow Valdman and Rottet et al , but have consulted Daigle and Faulk I used fennel in my jambalaya. It is one of the essential elements of Italian Cuisine.
It is the green flavor you taste in Italian sausage pizza. It adds just a hint of something else that is hard to put your finger on.
You've tasted it before, but never in a jambalaya. Use this trick to your advantage when you cook your novel by adding a hint of exotic references to other works.
It is a cultural artifact that is at hand and so it is used to tell the jambalaya more effectively.
Let me first say that I have studiously avoided any reference to the work of James Lee Burke. Now of course, the Robichaux series is well established; but when his first three works published, we did not know if another Robichaux was coming.
Each was a surprise and a joy. I purchased each paperback in their turn at a drugstore in my hometown: I look forward to reading the newest Burke novels when I complete this task.
It is a very private Louisiana pleasure that that I and other Cajuns take in these novels; and we are are very proud to know Burke speaks to the world about Cajun Louisiana.
The phrase is based on the first line by Melville in Moby Dick: However, the charnel house red of its tail lights signaled its intent to be lost in the fog and commit some unknown crime.
There are eight other prominent references to other works. First, Woody quotes the Declaration of Independence authored by Thomas Jefferson in his first political speech.
Second, Judge DeWinter speaks of Machiavelli whose title page and a folktale printed as an illustration in the webpage, Word Sketched, at this website.
Additional references of lyrics not subject to copy right are discussed in the Music Section of this essay and in Word Sung on this website.
I have been very careful in using trademarks. I have measured them out exactly as needed to give a sense of time and place; yet at the same time not adding too much flavor so as not to overwhelm the suble flavors of the other vegetables.
The listing below should be taken as a literary device to account for trademarks for goods and services to which the reader might want to know additional information about goods and services used within the time period and setting of the novel.
The discussion divides trademarks into two classes: The reader should not conclude that there was a relationship between this novel and a particular good or services as indicated by the use of these trademarks nor should the reader conclude that a particular good or service was available or not available.
This was simply a list of the trademarks that appeared in the book; if the reader wanted to know more about a particular instance, then this list was written as a point of departure.
The following establishments and organizations were found in the City of New Orleans: These existing radio and television stations were cited in the novel: All automobiles brand names used were derived from manufacturers no longer selling new vehicles.
The following once active, but currently closed establishments were mentioned in the vicinity of the City of Abbeville: Similarly, two other closed places were mentioned in the rural areas near of City of Abbeville: The following once active, but currently closed businesses were in and around the City of Lafayette: The following once active, but currently closed businesses were found in the City of New Orleans: Two defunct patent medicines were discussed with United States Patent and Trademark Office trademarks and were referenced with their official numbers and associated statuses: Keep your cookbook book shelves well stocked as your larder, your frig or your pantry.
Don't think that you have to have the newest book either. The oldest books often have the best flavors and are well aged, well seasoned, and well, just right for the pot.
Read alot and then imagine the flavors that might be conjured up. It's one of my biggest tricks. The sources cited by the character, Pelly Cessac, are documented within her report in Chapter 30, The Zeus Project, in which some sources are fictional, but nearly all are actual documents.
Republished Grand Prairie, Texas: The True Genesis of Rock and Roll. University Press of Mississippi. The Emergence of an American-Made Music.
Dave Robicheaux Series 3. Carlos Marcello and the Assassination of John F. A biography of Sheriff D. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company.
The first written record and definitive study of the Cajun Language as spoken by the people in Vermilion and surrounding parishes.
Harcourt, Brace and Company. Traditional Cajun Dance Music. Louisiana State University Press. The Limits of Cajun political rhetoric.
A Sensory Tour of Cajun Culture. Junior League of Lafayette. A glossary of Louisiana French figures of speech. Renouveau Publishing First Edition.
The Complete Tales as told by Julius Lester. University of Chicago Press. Moity et al So. Louisiana State bar Association La.
Public Affairs Research Council. Harper Brothers, Publishers, and London: New American Library Penguin. Identity and Authenticity in Cajun Music and Dance.
University of California Press. The Life of an Artist. Exhibits to US Government Printing Office. Case for Conspiracy with the C.
I remind my readers and guests, as I did in the introduction to this essay, that I might violate the genteel rules of grammer so as to convey the similarity between cooking and writing as mutually analogous metaphors.
There are also a few Texas tangents. Now, jambalaya is made from elements at hand much like myths which use the method of bricolage , that is taking elements readily available and assembling them in new ways.
The assemblage is guided by a set of rules. This appetizer you are now reading conveys those rules on how to cook jambalaya. If you understand these rules, the number of kinds of jambalaya you can cook will be limited only by your imagination.
I cook the jambalaya a certain way, but that way is only one of many ways as different cooks composes dishes to suit their readers. Some other storytellers cook their jambalaya in other ways.
You will hear many different versions of the same tale and you might be tempted to argue about which kind of jambalaya is the real one.
Be assured that as along as you follow the rules established in this essay you will tell real stories. If you want to more than just a little taste jambalaya presented below, then read the remainder of the essay: There are two major varieties of Louisiana Jambalaya, kind-a-sort-a-like brothers: Cajun jambalaya from rural Louisiana and the urban New Orleans jambalaya.
The singular supposed difference is the use of tomatoes in New Orleans and its lack in the Prairies. This sounds like a rule meant to inhabit or inhibit your creativity.
Please break this rule and it will lead to surprising results. The five categories of jambalaya ingredients are meat, vegetables, rice, seasonings, and water.
I will give some general advice on the selection of these elements, what kind of pot to use, and then proceed to a simple jambalaya recipe, that I hope everyone can tell.
First off, note that the meat is optional. If animal protein is used, then it is browned on high heat to burn slightly in the pan.
Although the pan is used, think of an open fire burning the meat. The pan will be deglazed during a simmering chapter to turn the white rice to a brown color and add flavor.
You can use seafood, but that food is placed in the pot when simmering begins. In no case should you mix seafood and animal protein.
Fish and pork chops are an abomination. You can avoid this issue by simply putting in no meat or seafood — you can go vegetarian.
There are three essential vegetables: Feel free to add some of other vegetables that range from eggplants to hot peppers to black eye beans to green beans.
Buy local and fresh if you can. And yes, you can add tomatoes even though you are cooking Cajun jambalaya. Just say that it is Creole when you use tomatoes and you will sound like an expert.
Repudiate the New Orleans myth as well as the trinity. Rice is the most important element. Buy the best you can find. As in the case of vegetables, quality matters.
The best rice grown in South Louisiana for jambalaya is a variety called Toro, a long grain. If you can find it, buy basmati.
It the same rice, but it tells slightly a different story with a Texas accent. Some people prefer sticky jambalaya, but I prefer a jambalaya in which the goal is each grain of rice is separated.
You might like sticky. To help you embrace sticky, I will even tell you about distant jambalaya cousins who use short grains.
In any case, you need to buy whole grains, not cracked grains. So tell the whole story, not just a part of it.
When I was a boy, rice that was cracked in half was fit for only chicken feed. Now some of that rice is being sold for human consumption.
Be sure as well that the rice is white without a trace of the brown hull. Jambalaya can be made from brown rice, but that is for a master cook, not for an apprentice as these instruction assume.
Let me tell you where I learned this tale. My father was a cook of some renown. As I write these lines, he would be over years old if he were alive.
In his time, there was no such thing as a caterer. There were men and some women who you could hire for a private party like a political dinner or you could ask to contribute their time for a fund raiser.
Their pay was meager: I still meet people today who remember meals that my father cooked some 40 years ago in his prime. I did not so much learn how to cook from my father; for it was naturally expected that all men cook.
Rather, I learned how to eat from my father. He only used two primary seasonings: He also grew a bay leaf tree and would use those when he remembered.
No black pepper, that too is an abomination. Many cooks today call themselves Cajun by adding extreme amounts of pepper. This I believe is a marketing strategy to sell more red pepper to the unsuspecting.
But when it came to salt, my father knew few limits. Imagine the taste of seawater diluted just enough so that you could taste the hint of vegetables in the pot.
I believe he cooked with a lot of salt as a strategy to make you drink more beer, especially at political suppers where drinking was heavy.
The leftovers he brought back home after cooking for other kinds of dinners was far less salty. My father cooked jambalaya in a five gallon circular black cast iron pot with a cypress paddle.
He heated the pot with butane that was given freely by his oil and gas company to their employees. An old, recycled, water heater burner was used to heat the pot.
It can be played by an apprentice or journeyman, but the finesse is just gone. You can just play a much simpler song with simpler lyrics by using a black cast iron pot that is well seasoned.
The pot need not be large. I learned to cook jambalaya on a 15 inch wide skillet, about three inches deep. It has a heavy lid to keep the steam the rice.
To begin, select your vegetables. For every cup of rice, you should use about one and one-half cup of chopped vegetables. If you are preparing vegetarian jambalaya, then increase that mixture to two to two and a half cups of chopped vegetables to one cup of rice.
If you like a lot of vegetables and are adding meat, then use the vegetarian mix. Here is a tangent about vegetarianism, Cajun cooking, and environmental diversity: Cajun cooking is the cooking of the peasantry.
Peasants always eat a lot of vegetables because by definition a peasant is one who grows his own food and participates sparingly in the moneyed economy.
Meat is used sparingly because it is expensive in that kind of economy. Or so the story goes. Cajuns are somewhat of the exception here.
They were peasants who lived in the land of Louisiana, a bountiful place when it was first settled and continues to be despite the environmental disasters of recent years.
The place has a wide variety of food because so many ecological niches overlapped and border one another. Diversity is the basis of this bountiful place.
This diversity is represented in their ethnicity and their cooking, particularly jambalaya. Some people may say that vegetarian jambalaya is not traditional.
But in Talk About Good But more about this subject latter. The first step is to break some traditional rules.
My father never precooked his rice. He added his rice raw at the end of the preparation. I discovered that you can add about three-fourths of a table spoon of cooking oil to one cup of rice.
Each oil imparts its own flavor and this flavor will be serve as the premise of the story.